# Report Notation

The following table describes most, but not all, report column headings that you will see. Other items may be described in Design Topics, or elsewhere in the User's Guide. Column headings may be customized in VisualAnalysis using Table Properties.

**Quick Tips:**

- Lower-case x, y, z represent
**local**or section coordinate directions. - Upper-case X, Y, and Z represent
**global**coordinate directions. - For members, x is the
**axial**direction! - Fx for members and spring supports axial forces:
**+ = tension**,**-**= compression

Column
Heading |
Description |

% Damping | Damping factor used in modal superposition |

%Iy, %Iz, %J | Percent of stiffness to use during analysis of cracked materials |

Alpha | Thermal coefficient of expansion, for a material. |

Area | Area of plate |

Ax | Cross sectional area |

Beta | Beta Angle - rotates the member local coordinates, also an input parameter for time history analysis, or Parme Beta in concrete design |

Cases | Number of load cases included in the combination |

Category | Type of shape within a database |

Cluster Factor | Cluster factor used in modal superposition |

Combination Method | Response case modal combination method |

Combined | Is this a combined member? |

D. Mass | Lumped translational mass |

Delta | Input parameter for time-history analysis. |

Delta t | Time step interval for time history analysis. |

Density | Weight density of a material (also Gamma) |

Design Spectrum | Name of design spectrum |

Dim. 1 - Dim. 6 | Cross section dimensions, meaning depends on type of shape |

Direction | Global direction of a nodal load or member load. Direction of spring support. Also direction of a Semi-Rigid connection (advanced only) |

Displacement | Displacement result in spring |

DX, DY, DZ | Displacement in the global X, Y, or Z direction |

Dx, Dy, Dz | Local member displacements in the x, y, or z direction |

Dx1, Dy1, Dz1, Dx2, Dy2, Dz2 |
Displacement release in the local x, y, or z direction at the starting(1) or ending(2) node |

Elasticity, or E | Modulus of elasticity or Young's Modulus, E |

Elements | Number of members or elements in the group or mesh |

End Offset | Distance from the starting end of the member |

Endzone % 1, Endzone % 2 |
Percent of the member stiffness to use in the end zone region at the start(1) or end(2) of a member |

Endzone Dist. 1,
Endzone Dist. 2 |
Width of the end zone at the start(1) or end(2) of a member |

Endzone Type 1 Endzone Type 2 |
Type of end zone (normal, panel, or rigid) at the start(1) or end(2) of a member |

Equation | Equation name or description |

Exclusive | True or false, indicates whether the load case requires unique building code combinations, as for directional wind or seismic load sources. |

Extreme Item | Type of results |

f(Hz) | Frequency of vibration in cycles per second |

fa | Axial stress in a member (tension is positive, compression is negative). |

fby(+z), fby(-z) | Bending stress in a member bending about the section y-axis, at the extreme z fiber |

fbz(+y), fbz(-y) | Bending stress in a member bending about the section z-axis, at the extreme y fiber |

fc max, fc min | Extreme value of combined bending and axial stress at the section "corners", may be incorrect for non-rectangular shapes! |

fc(+z+y), fc(+z-y), fc(-z+y), fc(-z-y) | Superimposed bending
and axial stresses at section "corners", may be incorrect for round, tee, L, and other shapes without corners at a 'bounding rectangle' drawn around the shape. See Member Results |

fvy, fvz | Average shear stress on a member: Vy/A and Vz/A, respectively. These are not the "extreme" shear forces on the cross section as VisualAnalysis cannot calculate that information. |

Final Shape | Designed member size or section name |

Fix DX, Fix DY,
Fix DZ |
Supported against translation in X, Y, or Z |

Fix RX, RY, RZ | Supported against rotation about X, Y or Z |

Force | Reaction force in spring supports. |

Fx | Axial force in a member (tension is positive, compression is negative). |

FX, FY, FZ | Reaction force in the global X, Y, or Z direction |

Gamma | Density of a material (g) |

Iy, Iz | Moment of inertia about the local axis |

J | Torsion constant |

L.FX, L.FY, L.FZ | Sum of applied loads in the global X, Y, or Z direction |

L.MX, L.MY, L.MZ | Total moment about X, Y, or Z of applied loads, taken about the global origin |

Length | Length of member |

Load Case | Name of a load case |

Load Source | Type of loads in this load case |

Loads | Number of loads in the service load case |

Location | Node name or plate centroid where plate results are located |

Magnitude | Force, moment, displacement or rotation of a nodal load. Value of member load. |

Magnitude1, 2 | Starting or ending distributed member load |

Mass Case | Static load case included in a response analysis |

Mass Dir. | Direction of gravity for loads in response analysis |

Material | Material type name |

Max Mass | The maximum participating mass (X Mass, Y Mass or Z Mass) for the mode shape. The value is converted to a force. |

Max, Min Principal | Principle direction membrane stresses in plates |

Member | Member name |

Member Loads | Number of member loads in the service load case |

Modal Method | Method used to analyze for mode shapes |

Mode | Mode number |

Modes Used | Number of modes included in a response analysis |

Moment | The semi-rigid connection moment value. Advanced level only |

Mx | Torsional moment in a member |

Mx, My | Distributed moment on local x or y face of plate |

MX, MY, MZ | Nodal reaction moment in the global X, Y, or Z direction, Distributed plate bending moment transformed to global directions |

Mxy | Distributed twisting moment on plate edge |

MXY | Distributed twisting moment transformed to global directions |

My, Mz | Bending moment in a member about local y or z |

Name | Name of the Design Group or Mesh |

Nodal Loads | Number of nodal loads in the service load case |

Node | Node name. |

Offset | Distance from the starting end of the member |

Offset y, Offset z | Member centerline offset in the local y or z direction. |

One Way | Normal, tension-only or compression-only member or spring support |

Parameters | Are design parameters set and valid? |

Phi | Angle to the global Z axis for a spherical coordinate |

Plane | Top, bottom, or mid-plane of plate element |

Plate | Plate name |

Plate Loads | Number of plate loads in the service load case |

Points | Number of data points in a design spectrum |

Poisson | Poisson's Ratio, n |

Pressure 1 - Pressure 4 | Plate pressure load at node 1 through 4 |

Projected | Is the load on the projected length? |

Power | Semi-rigid connection power factor, advanced level only |

R | Distance from the origin in polar coordinates |

R. Mass | Lumped rotational mass |

R.FX, R.FY, R.FZ | Sum of reactions in the global X, Y, or Z direction |

R.MX, R.MY, R.MZ | Total moment about X, Y, or Z of reactions, taken about the global origin |

Result Case Name | The name of the result case for a specific load case. |

Result Type | Indicates the type
of the result case (1^{st} order, 2^{nd} order, or
dynamic time results) |

Results | Load case has valid analysis results? |

Rho | Spherical coordinate |

RX, RY, RZ | Rotation in the global X, Y, or Z direction |

Rx1, Ry1, Rz1 | Rotation release, local x, y, or z at the starting node |

Rx2, Ry2, Rz2 | Rotation release, local x, y, or z at the ending node |

Scale Factor | A load factor applied to an entire load combination equation. (e.g. .75 in .75(1.4D + 1.7L + 1.2W)) |

Section | Section name of a shape in a database |

Self Weight | Includes self-weight of model |

Self X, Y, or Z | Factor on self-weight in the X, Y, or Z direction |

Service | Checked for design serviceability |

Shear Ay, Shear Ay | Shear Area, area that participates in shear resistance (i.e., the web on a wide flange) Ignored if zero. |

Sigma x, Sigma y | Membrane normal stress perpendicular to the local x or y face of a plate |

Sigma X, Sigma Y, Sigma Z | Membrane normal stresses in plates transformed to global directions |

Span/Dy, Span/Dz | Ratio of member element length to local deflection in the y or z direction |

Spring | Spring support name |

Stiffness | Stiffness of spring |

Stiffness 1, Stiffness 2 |
Semi-rigid connection stiffness parameters, advanced level only |

Strength | Load case is checked for design strength. Concrete or masonry material compressive strength. |

Sy(+z), Sy(-z) | Section modulus about local y, at the extreme z fiber |

Sz(+y), Sz(-y) | Section modulus about local z, at the extreme y fiber |

T Delta | Change in temperature on a member or plate |

T Gradient | Gradient temperature through a member or plate |

T(sec) | Period of vibration in seconds |

Taper Depth | Depth of member at end of taper |

Taper End | Distance from the start of member to end taper |

Taper Start | Distance from the start of member to begin taper |

Taper Type | Type of member taper |

Tau Principal | Principal shear stress in a plate |

Tau xy | In-plane shear stress on a plate |

Tau XY, YZ, or ZX | Membrane shear stresses in plates transformed to global directions |

Therm. Coeff. | Thermal coefficient of expansion |

Theta | Theta Angle. Used in polar or spherical coordinates. |

Thickness | Thickness of plate element |

Time | The time for a time-history result case, this may be a time-step or an actual time in seconds, advanced level only |

Type | Type of spectrum. Design code or specification. |

Unity | Unity check ratio (<= 1 is good, >1 is bad), or actual value/allowable value, or demand/capacity. Used for forces, moments, stresses, deflections or other criteria. |

Vx, Vy | Distributed shear force on x or y face of plate |

Vy, Vz | Shear force in the local y or z direction in a member |

Warping Constant | The warping
constant, C_{w}, a property of the cross section of a member
element, advanced level only |

Weight | Weight of member or plate |

Weight-X, Y, or Z | Self-weight of the model in the X, Y, or Z direction |

X C.M., Y, or Z | X, Y, or Z location of the center of mass |

X Cosine, Y, or Z | Spring direction cosine in X, Y, or Z |

X Dir, Y, or Z | Direction factors for a Response Case |

X Mass, Y, or Z | Contributing mass in the X, Y, or Z direction for a mode shape. It may just be a small portion of the model that is vibrating. The mass is converted to a force. |

X Part, Y, or Z | Modal Participation factors in X, Y, or Z, represents the percentage of structural mass that is 'active' in a mode shape. Building codes often require that you include enough mode shapes in a response analysis to achieve a certain level of participation. |

X, Y, Z | Global Cartesian X, Y or Z position in space |